PARSLEY

| 0

Herbal Monograph

Herb:   PARSLEY      (Petrosellinum sativum; Umbeliferae)

Other Names:    hamburg parsley, persely, petersylinge, rock parsley (2)

Character/Energetics:    sweet, bland, warm    (6)

Meridians/Organs/Body Parts affected:   lung, stomach, bladder, Iiver     (6)      

kidneys…gall bladder   (14) 

Part(s) used:  seeds, leaf and root    (6)   (14)                                                                                                  

Leaf, seeds and root have all been used at times.    (61)

Identification & Harvesting:    Inflorescences are long-pedicled, terminal, 10-to-20-rayed, yellowish umbels.  Plant is biennial, smooth, with a characteristic odor;  grows from 2′-3′ high.  Numerous stems grow from one root and are erect, round, smooth and branched.  Tuberous, vertical root;  leaves are ovate and tripinnate and complex.  Cultivated worldwide.    (2)

Collect root in autumn from two year plants.  Leaves can be taken any time during growing season.    (8)

A member of the carrot family native to Europe.  Collect leaves in the second year before flowering.    (61)

Active Constituents:    Foliage — volatile oils .02-.3%, chiefly apiole, myristicin, 1-allyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzole, mentha-1,3,8-triene (up to 50% of the volatile oils, and the aroma-bearer), alpha- and beta-pinene, alpha- and beta-phellandrene;  furocoumarins incl. bergaptene, oxypeucedanin, isopimpinellin, psoralen, xanthotoxin, imperatorin;  flavonoids 1.9-5.6%, chiefly apiin;  vitamin C up to 165 mg. per 100 gm.   Rhizome — volatile oils .05-.12%, chiefly apiole, myristicin, terpinolene, tuberosum apiole, alpha- and beta-pinene, (+)-limonene, beta-bisabolene;  phthalides incl. ligustilide, senkyunolide;  furocoumarins incl. bergaptene, oxypeucedanin, isopimpinellin, psoralen, xanthotoxin, imperatorin;  flavonoids .2-1.3%, chiefly apiin;  polyynes incl. falcarinol, falcarindiol.  Seeds — volatile oils 2-6%, varying according to breed, chiefly apiole 58-80%, or myristicin 49-77%, or 1-allyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzole 50-60%;  also alpha- and beta-pinene, beta-phellandrene;  furocoumarins incl. bergapten, oxypeucedanin, isopimpinellin, psoralen, xanthotoxin, imperatorin;  fatty oils, chiefly fatty acid petroselic acid 60-80%.    (2)

The root contains essential oil, apiin, bergaptein, isoimperatorin, mucilage, sugar.  The seeds are stronger in essential oil with apiol, myristicene, pinene and other terpenes, flavone glycoside, apiin, furanocumarin bergapten, fatty oil and petroselinic acid; the leaves are similar but weaker in the above constituents.    (6)

essential oil incl. apiol and myristicin, vitamin C, glycoside apiin, starch.  One of our richest sources of vitamin C.    (8)

The seeds contain apiol, which is considered a safe and efficient emmenagogue, and is used in amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea.    (57)

The leaf has a reputation as a breath freshener and is valued as a diuretic.  The root was also used for dropsy and gonorrhea.  Fresh leaves were bruised and used as a poultice for contusions, enlarged glands and insect bites.  An ointment of the leaf was thought to kill head lice.  The tea was believed to soothe menstrual cramps.  Used today as a carminative to relieve flatulence and as a diuretic.  Approved in Germany for lower urinary tract infections and kidney gravel.    (61)

One component of the leaf, myristicin, is being studied for anti-cancer activity.    (61)

Actions:    In animal tests, induced uterine contractions were observed.    (2)

diuretic, carminative, anthelmintic, stimulant, emmenagogue (especially the seeds), expectorant.    (6)       …nervine, tonic   (14)

an effective diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue, carminative;  reputed to be an aphrodisiac.    (8)

Aperient, diuretic, emmenagogue.    (57)

Conditions & Uses:    Used for flushing the urinary tract and for prevention and treatment of kidney gravel.  Folk uses include gastric disorders, jaundice, kidney and bladder inflammation, as a diuretic and emmenagogue.    (2)

It is used for edema, fluid retention, frequent urination, bedwetting, rheumatic complaints, menstrual disorders, indigestion, gas and intestinal worms.   (6)                  

Used as a diuretic, as a menstrual stimulant.  Also eases flatulence and colic.    (8)

                  Internal: 

      Anemia–fresh juice

                  Arthritis–tincture, fluid extract, juice

                  Asthma–decoction*, infusion*

                  Bad breath–eat raw, juice, infusion, decoction

                  Bed wetting–tincture, fluid extract, infusion, decoction, juice

                  Coughs–infusion*, decoction*

                  Gall stones–infusion*, decoction*

      Gout–juice, infusion, decoction, tincture, fluid extract

                  Hay fever–infusion*, decoction

                  Kidney infections–tincture, fluid extract, infusion, decoction, juice

                  Liver congestion–tincture, fluid extract, infusion, decoction, juice, eat raw

                  Low blood pressure–juice, infusion, eat raw

      Lumbago–tincture*, fluid extract*, infusion*, decoction*, juice

      Prostate cleanser: tincture, fluid extract, infusion, decoction, juice

                  Spleen (remove obstructions): juice decoction

                  Thyroid weakness: tincture, fluid extract, infusion, decoction, powder, juice

                  Water retention: tincture, fluid extract, infusion, decoction, juice

                  External:

                  Bites: poultice of fresh leaves

Parsley root or leaves is excellent for difficult urination, dropsy, jaundice, stones and obstructions of the liver and spleen. Combined with echinacea, plantain and marshmallow root it is a good remedy for kidney and bladder infections. The fresh juice of the leaves (2 ounces daily in apple juice) is an excellent blood tonic and remedy for anemia.

Use the fresh leaves in salads. The root is excellent for jaundice. The seeds contain apiol, which is considered a safe and efficient emmenagogue and is used in amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. Combine with buchu, cramp bark and black haw for female problems. The high chlorophyll content of the leaves makes this herb an excellent treatment for cancer.

Drink the fresh juice daily.    (14) 

Chiefly used on account of its diuretic properties.  In gravel, stones, congestion of kidneys, and in dropsy it will be of great service.  The seeds contain apiol, which is considered a safe and efficient emmenagogue, and is used in amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea.    (57)

Combinations:    Combined with echinacea, plantain and marshmallow root it is a good remedy for kidney and bladder infections….Combine with buchu, cramp bark and black haw for female problems.       (14)                                                                        

                                                                                                                                                           

Precautions:    Contraindicated in patients allergic to parsley or apiole, those with kidney inflammations, and pregnant women.  Occasional contact allergies such as photodermatosis following intensive skin contact with freshly-harvested plants by fair-skinned individuals.  Otherwise, no known hazards or side effects with designated dosages.  Higher doses of the volatile oil can lead to poisonings with symptoms as spasms or twitchings of the bladder, intestines or uterus;  anuria;  bloody stools;  emaciation;  fatty liver;  hemolysis;  methemoglobinuria;  and mucus membrane bleeding.    (2)

Inadvisable during pregnancy — may cause excessive stimulation of the uterus.    (8)

Parsley can be warming and should not be used if kidney inflammation exists. (14)                                                      

Demonstrated high risk factors.  German authorities advise against its use during pregnancy or kidney inflammation.  Rare contact dermatitis, allergic skin reaction or mucous membrane reaction.  Photodermatitis in pale-skinned persons.  Seed causes uterine contractions:  could cause miscarriage.  Seed also can cause gastrointestinal bleeding or inflammation.    (61)

Tincturing Process:

Applications:  Leaves:  Infusion–steep 5 to 10 minutes. 6 oz. Two to three times daily

                        Root/Seed: Decoction–simmer 5 to 15 minutes. 6 oz. Two or three times daily.  

                        Tincture: 30 to 60 drops (1/2 to 1 tsp.) two to three times daily

                        Fluid Extract: 1/2 to 1 tsp. two to three times daily

            Fresh Juice: 2 oz. Two times daily

                         Powder: 2 to 5 #0 capsules (10 to 30 grains) several times daily    (14)              

(see “Conditions and Uses” for various applications)

Infusion — 1 c. boiling water over 1-2 tsp;  infuse 5-10 min. in a closed container;  3 x daily.    (8)

Divination:

Dosage:   standard dosage or 3‑9 gms.   (6)

Up to 3 g. capsules daily.  Steep 2 tsp dried herb in 1 cup hot water for 10-15 min., 3 x daily.  Tincture 30-60 drops, 3 x daily.    (61)

General Notes:   Its traditional uses have not been substantiated.    (61)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

References:

(2)  PDR for Herbal Medicines (Medical Economics Co., 1998), pgs. 1022-24

(6) Planetary Herbology by Michael Tierra, C.A., N.D., pgs. 218-219

(8)  The New Holistic Herbal by David Hoffman, p. 220

(14) Natural Healing With Herbs by Humbart Santillo BS, MH, pgs. 154-155

(57) Potter’s Cyclopaedia by R.C. Wren, F.L.S., pgs. 261-262

(61) 101 Medicinal Herbs by Steven Foster, pgs. 150-51